BAHASA INDONESIA Dalam Penulisan Karya Ilmiah

Penggunaan Bahasa dlm penyusunan tulisan ilmiah

  • Menulis merupakan proses menentukan pokok tulisan dan pembaca
  • Mengumpulkan bahan yang berkaitan dengan pokok tulisan
  • Memilih bahan yang paling relevan dan menatanya dlm kerangka tulisan
  • Menyunting tulisan sebelum dipublikasikan
  • Berkaitan dengan dengan proses penyusunan bahan tulisan

Bagaimana memahami tulisan ilmiah

  • Memahami tujuan penulisan, tema tulisan dan sasaran (pembaca) tulisan
  • Mempengaruhi pemilihan ragam bahasa yang digunakan

Mencermati tulisan ilmiah

  • Dapat menemukan tujuan penulisan
  • Menjelaskan sesuatu
  • Mendiskripsikan sesuatu
  • Meyakinkan pembaca tentang sesuatu

Bahasa Indonesia Ragam Ilmiah

  • Bahasa merupakan sebuah sistem yang lazim digunakan dalam sebuah tulisan
  • Keterbacaan menyangkut pemilihan bahasa yang dianggap sesuai tingkat kemampuan pembaca

A. Pilihan kata

1)Kata bermakna harafiah (Detonatif)

Berhubungan dengan akal atau penalaran, bedakan kalimat di bawah ini :

Rakyat ialah jutaan tangan yang membuka hutan ilalang menjadi ladang-ladang berbunga yang selalu berkata dua  adalah dua dan yang melantunkan kecak di muka pura

  • Rakyat ialah kumpulan orang yang terikat olek kesamaam kebudayaan, tradisi atau perasaan kekeluargaan.

2) Kata yang dikenal pembaca

kata yang biasa digunakan sehari-hari, tidak terlalu teknis atau kata asing.

Contoh kata baku dan  kata takbaku

Kata baku

  • Pikir, paham
  • Nasihat
  • Ijazah
  • Jadwal
  • Kualitas, kuantitas, kuitansi
  • Mengapa
  • Energi
  • Hipotesis
  • Teknik
  • Kategori
  • Sistem
  • Metode
  • Pascapanen
  • Antarbagian
  • Terima kasih
  • Kerja sama
  • Tim

Kata tak baku

  • Fikir, faham
  • Nasehat
  • Ijasah
  • Jadual
  • Kwalitas, kwantitas, kwitansi
  • Kenapa
  • Enerji
  • Hipotesa
  • tehnik
  • Katagori
  • Sistim
  • Metoda
  • Pasca panen
  • Antar bagian
  • Terimakasih
  • Kerjasama
  • Team

Lihat kalimat di bawah ini

  • Pengembangan intelegensia buatan seperti robot mempunyai tiga karakteristik utama. Ketiganya adalah reasoning, sense dan berkomunikasi.
  • penjelasan kata- kata asing akan memudahkan pembaca memahami maksud dari kalimat tersebut

3) Kata bermakna tepat kata yang tidak tepat akan menimbulkan salah tafsir pada pembaca.

Contoh : kecuali dan selain, besar dan agung

kata-kata tersebut berfungsi dan bermakna sama, tetapi pemakaiannya berbeda. Perbedaan ini harus jelas dalam kalimat

4) Istilah teknis dibatasi

Istilah teknis yang dianggap tidak terlalu perlu harus diganti dengan istilah Indonesia atau disertai penjelasannya

Contoh:

Perkembengan jumlah penduduk, yang lazim disebut fertilitas (laju pertumbuhan penduduk), merupakan salah satu masalah kependudukan.

Kalimat bagaimana yang mudah dipahami ?

1)Kalimat pendek

Ø  lebih mudah dan cepat dipahami

Ø  menyampaikan suatu gagasan, kalimat   panjang mengungkap beberapa gagasan

B. SUSUNAN KALIMAT

  • Kalimat yang teratur menunjukkan cara berfikir yang teratur
  • Keteraturan berfikir dalam menjelaskan sesuatu dalam tulisan ilmiah sangat penting

2) Kalimat hemat

  • Perhatikan kalimat di bawah ini :

Diduga bahwa dalam waktu yang tidak terlalu lama bahasadengan penutur yang tinggal seratus orang itu akan punah   —> bandingkan dengan kalimat di bawah:

Diduga bahwa bahasa yang berpenutur seratus orang itu akan segera punah

Contoh lain :

  • Untuk penyaluran informasi yang efektif, maka harus dipergunakan sinar infra merah, hal ini disebabkan karena sinar ini mempunyai dispersi yang kecil

Kalimat diatas akan efektif apabila diubah menjadi :

Untuk penyaluran informasi yang efektif, harus dipergunakan sinar inframerah karena sinar ini mempunyai dispersi yang kecil

3) Kalimat tidak berbelit

Kalimat yang berbelit kadang menimbulkan penafsiran yang berbeda

Contoh :Kependudukan merupakan suatu sistem, yaitu penduduk yang merupakan suatu totalitas dari beberapa subsistem di dalamnya. Subsistem fertilitas, mortalitas, dan migrasi/mobilitas

Kalimat itu menimbulkan tafsiran berikut :

a.Kependudukan merupakan sebuah sistem yang terdiri atas beberapa subsistem.

b.Penduduk sebagai totalitas terdiri atas beberapa subsistem

c.Sistem dengan beberapa subsistemnya sama dengan totalitas

Apakah makna kalimat di atas seperti makna kalimat berikut ?

Kependudukan merupakan suatu sistem yang terdiri atas beberapa subsistem, yaitu subsistem fertilitas, mortalitas dan migrasi/moilitas. Sistem dengan beberapa subsistem itu merupakan suatu totalitas.

atau

Kependudukan, yakni penduduk yang merupakan suatu totalitas, adalah suatu sistem yang terdiri atas subsistem fertilitas, mortalitas, dan migrasi/mobilitas

Kalimat Tidak Rancu

Kalimat rancu adalah kalimat yang menggabungkan dua konstruksi sehingga gagasan kalimat menjadi kacau. Gejala ini, lazim disebut kontaminasi, terjadi kebiasaan atau keragu-raguan

1)Dari proses ini akan melahirkan berbagai perilaku sistem penduduk yang berwujud jumlah penduduk, ratio ketergantungan, ratio pria/wanita, dan lain sebagainya

Kalimat di atas dirancukan dari dua konstrusi berikut :

a)Dari proses ini akan dilahirkan berbagai perilaku penduduk yang berwujud………, dan lain-lain

b)Proses ini akan melahirkan berbagai perilaku sistem penduduk yang berwujud……, dan sebagainya

Beberapa kalimat berikut juga memperlihatkan kerancuan

2) Meskipun kadang-kadang kekurangdayagunaan dalam penyampaian bahasa, tetapi akhirnya dapat diselami maksudnya.

3) Menurut penulis buku ini menyatakan bahwa manajemen adalah ilmu yang menelaah kerja sama manusia dalam mencapai tujuan yang disetujui bersama.

5) Kalimat dengan bentuk Kata Paralel

  • Bentuk kata paralel dalam kalimat menunjukkan pikiran yang paralel pula.
  • Keparalelan bentuk pikiran dalam kalimat memperjelas gagasan kalimat dan mempermudah pembaca dalam memahami kalimat

6. Kalimat Tidak Terpenggal

  • Bagian kalimat yang terpenggal lebih cocok digunakan dalam bahasa lisan
  • Bagian kalimat yang didahului dengan kata seperti, yaitu dan karena seharusnya tidak dari kalimat yang mendahuluinya

Kalimat dlm bahasa tulisan harus ditulis secara utuh:

  • Sistem budidaya ikan akan sangat berpengaruh dan dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor. Seperti jenis dan ukuran ikan, padat penebaran, jenis dan ukuran pakan.
  • Dewasa ini, kita sedang dahsyat-dahsyatnya dilanda suatu dikotomi, yaitu sikap kita terhadap salah satu milik kita, bahasa Indonesia.
  • Karena kebudayaan dilihat sebagai suatu sistem, dan perubahan salah satu unsurnya akan mengakibatkan adanya perubahan pada unsur-unsur lainnya, dan secara keseluruhan akan menakibatkan adanya perubahan kebudayaan tersebut.

7. Kalimat menurut Tata Bahasa dan Ejaan

  • Kaidah tata bahasa memberi patokan bagaimana seharusnya membentuk kata dan menata kalimat sehingga logis.
  • Kaidah ejaan memberi patokan dalam penulisan huruf, kata, usur asing, dan penggunaan tanda baca sehingga membentuk tulisan yang mudah dipahami.

C. Susunan Paragraf

  • Paragraf merupakan satuan bahasa yang lebih besar daripada kalimat.
  • Paragraf sebaiknya disusun atas satu gagasan utama dan beberapa gagasan penunjang dan gagasan-gagasan itu secara keseluruhan merupakan satu kesatuan
  • Paragraf yang panjang akan melelahkan pembaca dalam memahaminya sehingga sulit mengikuti jalan pikiran penulis

Laporan Baca Elizabethan-Victorian Periods

Romanticism Movement in Literature

Karya sastra romantisme dimulai pada tahun 1780-1830 dimana pada tahun ini pemikiran-pemikiran modern tentang spiritualitas yang beranggapan tentang ada lebih dari satu dewa dan agama. Seniman dan penyair pada abad ini menjelajahi alam seolah-olah mereka hadir didalamnya tetapi tidak melihatnya. Gerakan romantisme ini juga didorong oleh keadaan masyarakat Prancis untuk melakukan perubahan terhadap politik dan sosial karena masyarakat kelas bawah Eropa memberontak melawan kemiskinan disana. Melalui keadaan inilah karya sastra yang beraliran romantisme semakin berkembang dan kemudian dituangkan kedalam bentuk tulisan.

Revolusi Prancis sendiri pada tahun 1798-1799 dipandang sebagai dorongan Continue reading

Contrasts in Character in Jane Eyre and Wide Sargasso Sea

Jane Eyre is a bildungsroman novel written by Charlotte Bronte in 1847 that tells the story of a woman’s life journey from childhood to adulthood. The woman told in this novel named Jane Eyre lives as an orphan who lives her life with various challenges until she finally matures and lives married life with a man named Mr. Rochester. While Wide Sargasso Sea is a novel written by Jean Rhys that told about character named Antoinette that she gets married, her ex-husband Mr. Rochester drags her back to England where she has a mental breakdown and fulfills the expectation that she is a madwoman. The female character of Wide Sargasso Sea is a crazy woman that tells as a Rochester’s crazy wife who is bolted in an attic.

In my paper I will discuss about the contrast of Charlotte Bronte and Jean Rhys work in showing female character. These two novels both share the life of a woman with their misfortune that is far from the family, have a lonely childhood, and also lost their first friend in childhood. But the contrast of showing female character has a different that in Charlotte Bronte’s works, the character has a character that is a firm, gentle, and independent. While others novel that Wide Sargasso Sea showing the female character acts like animals and crazy.

I think the novel published by Charlotte Bronte strongly reflects the story of her own life, where she can survive after her parents died. Similar to Jane’s story in Jane Eyre novel, describing a woman who survives by being a teacher and a governess because she has no parents anymore. In a biography of Charlotte Bronte that I read in https://www.biography.com/people/charlotte-bront-11919959, she is the most dominant and ambitious woman among all Bronte families. Charlotte’s character is also very similar to the character attached to Jane, a woman who is responsible, tough and independent.

Unlike the female characters in Jean Rhys’s work depicting a figure that is arrogant, crazy and behaves like an animal. After reading a few writers’ biographies of Wide Sargasso Sea in http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/features/jean-rhys-prostitution-alcoholism-and-the-mad-woman-in-the-attic-1676252.html and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Rhys  that these two sources stated that Jean Rhys led a tortured life,  an alcoholic woman, often destitute, and abandoned by a series of men. In one of the sources said that she is also once refused to return to her parents’ place and chose to live her life as demimondaine. According to what I read from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demimonde demimondaine is a group of people who are in the upper classes, who have hedonistic habits, like in terms an extravagant lifestyle of fine food and clothes are striking. Besides demimondaine also get a lot of money from various lovers. Jean Rhys also became the mistress of wealthy stockbroker, Lancelot Gray Hugh (Lancey) Smith. Even Rhys had become a nude model in Britain.

I see that there is a contrast between the two authors in the two novels that are interconnected with each other. Novel writer Jane Eyre is a woman who is completely independent, optimistic and known as a woman who has a high spirit in his work as a teacher and governess. While the writer Wide Sargasso Sea has a background that I think leads to a negative thing, became a demimondaine and nude model in Britain. So the main female character in both of these novels is written by the author almost similar to the background of their respective lives.

By presenting two different lives, Jane Eyre’s story tends to show the positive side of the character of the female character in a more acceptable in the normal human life. Attitudes attached to Jane’s character also show a positive aura that is likely to be a mirror for women in the world to imitate her manner. In contrast to the character possessed by the female character in the Wide Sargasso Sea novel, the female character is shown has a negative attitudes because it has a bad manner and I think it is not appropriate to be imitated by women in this world.

Despite the almost similar resemblance to a past background, these two women deal with it differently. Jane, although she has no family to educate her but she can survive and do many things for her survival. Taking a job as a child’s teacher, Jane Eyre can survive even if she has lived with her distant family who hate her so much. The result of Jane’s hard work resulted in the attitude of the people around her thinking of her as an independent woman, tough person. Unlike Antoinette that is puzzled by having a body, spirit and life. The Wide Sargasso Sea novel tells of Antoinette being almost ignored by the people around her except Josephine, because Antoinette has rare communications with others. Antoinette when compared to today’s life, I think it is a habit that is very inappropriate to imitate because of his arrogant, crazy attitude and do not want to communicate with the people around her.

Wide Sargasso Sea persistently proposes problems of its concepts of gender. Female characters in Rhys’s novels are cruelly exposed to the gendered and financial constraints of an imperial world. This concept of the imperial world in this novel is published declaring that men hold full power and women are under that power. While Jane is rejected, the outcome for Antoinette is the creation of an involuntary reliance on the world that rejects her. The differences between the descriptions of these two women’s lives drastically changes the way we comprehend how each novel visualizes the womanhood and its relations.

Jane’s strong personality is quite clear on the Bronte’s novel. She often gets into trouble, argues with his male colleagues, about how the woman stands in the community. Furthermore, her refusal to accept the cultural norms of society is evident throughout this novel. For example, her attitude toward Mr. Rochester to put it her with jewelry and expensive clothes for her wedding. Her reluctance to be objectified is the most prominent indication that he does not define herself by his beauty. The main character of contempt for male authority is evident throughout her childhood. In her childhood at Reeds house, Jane was constantly being abused by her aunt, Ms. Reed and cousin, John, Georgiana and Eliza. Jane is so abused by John that makes her live in alienation and fear by defeating her whenever she wants because she believes that Jane, as a woman and an orphan, is inferior. Perhaps this is the beginning of how Jane strongly rejects the authority of power held by men. Since she was tortured by her cousin, until she met with Mr. Rochester.

These two novels are both feminist works, although each book leads to feminist problems somewhat differently. Jane has a strong foundation in what woman deserve, as well as achieving specific goals for how she portrays her spots in society being a woman; Antoinette has no knowledge where to start to change herself. In Wide Sargasso Sea, Rhys poses the likelihood that maybe; the gap between women and men cannot be penetrated. The two women in this novel are addressing a world that is almost similar to a different attitude. Jane acts like a normal woman who responds maturely to the challenges of her life, while Antoinette does the reverse in addressing her life.

Both women in the novel suffered personal freedom, both physically and mentally. In addition to a strong independent woman, in terms of her love, Jane Eyre is portrayed by her blind madness towards Mr. Rochester and let her emotions enslave her. Jane Eyre is also shown as a woman who is aware of her obsession with Mr. Rochester by saying that her future husband would be her whole world. While Antoinette uses a variety of ways including a potion that tries and forces Rochester to love her. But it turns out that her beloved man hates her more than ever before. Uniquely in Jane Eyre’s novel Antoinette emerges with a crazy attitude to get the attention of the man she loves, she performs two attempts to burn the house of Mr Rochester who is already the husband of Jane Eyre. There was a clear distinction between the two women, one gentle with her husband and the other is crazy to come to Thornfield for an attempt to burn Mr. Rochester’s house. Both Jane and Antoinette were the prisoners of their intense feelings towards the man they loved, leaving them exposed to the pain and betrayal.

Flashback with Jane’s life, the Reeds restricted her right to refusing to treat Jane with any other family. In the novel, an eight-year-old Jane was sentenced by Mrs. Abbott, a Reed family’s nanny. But Jane manages to get up and out of the Reed family life, and finally leads a better life as an adult. Antoinette, who was imprisoned by Rochester in England, deprived herself of humanity. The people in Jane and Antoinette lives generate power over them incorrectly depress the lives of the two women. Jane and Antoinette are both ostracized by their respective communities as a direct result of their social position. Jane is an orphan with no money and no close relatives. Although she is clearly a smart and unique girl, she is treated as an outcast because of her orphan status. But Jane strongly rejects her low opinion and does not want to be pitied by others.

The contents of these two novels are related to each other. So the novel Jane Eyre and Wide Sargasso Sea is a rival narrative, in which Wide Sargasso Sea’s novel criticizes everything on Jane Eyre and vice versa Jane Eyre criticizes everything on the Wide Sargasso Sea novel. Both of these novels gave rise to the quality of each female character. In Jane Eyre, the narrator raises clearly the character of Jane, while Wide Sargasso Sea clearly raises the Antoinette character. However, the different narrators of the two novels give different characters showing. Charlotte describes Jane with positive attitudes while Jean Rhys describes the female character of her novel that leads to a negative attitude.

The most significant difference between the two novels is how each female character lives their poor lives. Through problems in their childhood until the problem of love or romance, the two female characters responded differently. Jane Eyre is mature, tough, and independent and strongly rejects others’ low opinion of her. Jane is also loved by Mr. Rochester for her interest in Jane. While Antoinette is very different from Jane. She is described by the narrator as a crazy woman, behaving like an animal. Even the Antoinette love story is depicted very unfortunate, because she was imprisoned by Mr. Rochester in England and after being released from prison she became increasingly savage. Came to Mr. Rochester’s house at Thornfield, she tried to burn her ex-husband’s house twice. And at the time of the incident, Jane Eyre has become Mr. Rochester’s wife. Antoinette also has an arrogant life, which causes him to rarely communicate with people around him. Jane Eyre in the novel is told as a woman who has a sense of humanity, communicates with many people and is not arrogant.

But, uniquely apart from having a contrasting in living their life, these two female characters have little in common: Both Jane and Antoinette were the prisoners of their intense feelings towards the man they loved, leaving them exposed to the pain and betrayal.

Through this novel also the reader can distinguish and choose the right attitude as a woman. I think Jane Eyre’s attitude is worth imitating because it shows a positive attitude of being independent, firm, gentle, and adult despite not getting the teachings of her parents since she was little. Antoinette, in the Wide Sargasso Sea novel, is portrayed as a bad, crazy, act like animal and rough because of her actions to Mr. Rochester and Jane Eyre. And one of the acts depicting Antoinette as a negative person is her attitude of seeking revenge by trying to burn his ex-husband’s house.

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Rhys

https://www.biography.com/people/charlotte-bront-11919959

http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/features/jean-rhys-prostitution-alcoholism-and-the-mad-woman-in-the-attic-1676252.html

 

PENULIS,

 

Mega Puspita Pandiangan

English Literature Unpad

AKULTURASI BUDAYA INDIA DI INDONESIA (PART 1)

  • PROSES AKULTURASI
  • HASIL BUDAYA:

— Kehidupan keagamaan,

–- Bangunan peribadatan

–- Seni arca

–- Relief

–- Perlengkapan upacara

– Karya Sastra

INDIANISASI

PERMASALAHAN

  1. Identifikasi wilayah India yang menjadi sumber dari unsur-unsur kebudayaan yang dibawa ke Indonesia (khususnya Jawa), yaitu India Selatan dan India Utara, bisa dilihat pada:

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Akulturasi budaya Cina, dalam: Sistem Sosial, Sistem Politik, Sistem Perekonomian

Diskursus Sejarah Orang Cina

  • Meskipun kedatangan orang Cina di Asia Tenggara sudah sejak lama, namun struktur masyarakat Cina di Indonesia baru berkembang setelah kedatangan kolonialis Belanda.
  • Orang Cina kadang diposisikan dalam lingkaran eksklusif, tertutup, mementingkan diri sendiri, egoistik juga kerap disebut pelit.
  • Meski begitu, muncul pula warna khas yang kadang kontras. Bias setereotip di atas, pada posisi tertentu dianggap dekat dengan rakyat kecil.
  • Sebagai ‘kelompok minoritas’, orang Cina ternyata piawai dalam mesiasati keberadaannya sebagai mahkota ekonomi yang signifikan.
  • Kemampuan di bidang ekonomi itu jauh di atas kemampuan penduduk pribumi.
  • Kusnaka Adimihardja : orang Cina dulu selalu diberi kesempatan yang lebih baik oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda.
  • Daoed Joesoef, membantah adanya pemberian hak istimewa oleh Belanda. Menurut Daoed Joesoef, Pemerintah Hindia Belanda justru mengasingkan orang Cina. Beberapa jabatan tertutup bagi orang Cina. Termasuk tidak boleh memasuki sekolah tertentu, tidak boleh membeli tanah. Selain itu etnis Cina hanya boleh tinggal di suatu daerah tertentu yang dikenal sebagai Pecinan.

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